The emergence of Youth Culture, changes were occurring:
-Social Class, people moving up and down the hierarchy
-Influence and dominance of American Culture
-The role and importance of the media (massive uprising with the technology of television)
-Youth Culture not being dependent on Parents
Youth Culture was influenced by the American Culture through TV/film, American style magazines, Hollywood and TV commercials in 1955.
The Independent Group was a highly significant collection of writers,thinkers and creative practitioners such as Reyner Banham and Richard Hamilton. Richard Hamilton reviewed and analysed the American popular culture.
British intellectuals conservatives were against the culture as they didn’t want Britain to change its way to Americanization, they found the culture rebellious and provocative.
Pop Art is an art movement that emerged in the 1950’s in the United States, early artists that explored the movement were Eduardo Paolozzi, Richard Hamilton, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns.
Pop Art Definition: “art based on modern popular culture and the mass media, especially as a critical or ironic comment on traditional fine art values.”
Pop art is using made up of unusual filter colours and the common dot work effect, the dots used in the comic style paintings have a meaning as they represent cheap paper and printing facilities for commercial purposes. The idea to add text into a piece suggests a story and interpretation of cultural icons and comic books.
Britain’s first pop culture show was ‘This is Tomorrow’ Exhibition in 1956. This was the acceptance of cultural icons that became works of art.
It stated Art that is about the ‘NOW’ and reflection of the ‘NOW’. The art was considered ‘lost in space’ and in the late 50’s set of the ‘jet age’ and ‘rocket burn’ representing the Space Age.
American design and advertising was considered ‘sexy’ compared to the British design and advertising techniques as they looked old fashioned and pre war. This became the ‘Americanization’ of our culture.
The Emergence of Youth
Population of teenagers in 1955 was 6%
Population of teenagers in 1964 was 10%
Teenagers in employment in 1959 was 80%
‘Rebel without a cause’ film was made attractive to the teenagers of Britain as they wanted to be like the teenagers portrayed in American films as being the rebels.
Culture was significantly influenced by the rock and roll age of music,dancing and Hollywood with key figures of Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe.
Teenagers started to grow an image for themselves and move away from the ideal of dressing like your parents. A fashion style was created called ‘De Mob’ suits that made you look like your parents, the rebel came from a unique clothing for youth called the ‘Teddy Boys’ and the ‘Rocker’ look.
In 1960 paranoia, distrust and conspiracy brought the death of Modernism and the rise in the power of the Youth Culture. With the Vietnam War and the shootings being displayed across national TV, led to student deaths from protests. Some historians give the 1968 as the death of modernism marking the student demonstrations and strikes in Paris.
The 60’s was essentially a decade of HOPE:
-USA’s man on the moon
-Throw away aesthetic
Product and interior design came up with a throw away aesthetic to produced items that are replaceable and thrown away after a certain period of time, it was the thought that nothing would last forever.
Example: Paper Chair 1964 Peter Murdoch
Fashion provided the opportunity for experimentation, revolution and a strong code of identification. Fashion began to have a meaning.